Mechanisms of Panel Conditioning in Longitudinal Studies: Reflection, Satisficing, and Social Desirability (PaCo)

A Joint Research Project by GESIS, ZPID, and Utrecht University


Funding German Research Foundation (DFG)
Project Duration November 2019 - November 2022
Partners GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, Utrecht University
Project Team Dr. Henning Silber (GESIS), Prof. Dr. Michael Bosnjak (ZPID), Asst. Prof. Dr. Bella Struminskaya (Utrecht University), Dr. Bernd Weiß (GESIS), Fabienne Kraemer (GESIS), Joanna Koßmann (ZPID), Andrea Sarafoglou (GESIS)


Data is collected within two panel surveys:

  • Probability-based mixed-mode panel survey (i.e., GESIS Panel)
  • Non-probability online panel survey (hosted by ZPID - Leibniz Institute for Psychology)


  • Probabilistic sample of the German-speaking population aged 18+ (at the time of recruitment) and permanently resident in Germany
  • Quota sample of official panel members of the opt-in online panel provided by respondi AG aged 18+ and permanently resident in Germany

Data Collection

October 2020 - February 2022 (six panel waves in total)

Two data collection intervals:

  • short: every month (non-probability online panel survey)
  • long: every two/three months (probability-based mixed-mode panel survey + non-probability online panel survey)


  • September 2022:  conference presentations at GOR22 (slides available at "project deliverables")
  • May 2022:  conference presentation at AAPOR2022 (slides available at "project deliverables")


Dr. Henning Silber
GESIS – Leibniz-Institute for the Social Sciences